Archive for February, 2012
Most commercial and industrial steel buildings require concrete slabs while some agricultural steel buildings use concrete piers rather than a full slab. Whatever foundation is used, you should hire a foundation engineer to complete the design and construction. The metal building supplier is not accountable for the foundation’s design. Upon placing the order, the contract documents that are provided include erection drawings. They are actually anchor bolt plans that demonstrate the place, diameter, and projection of the bolts that will be connected to the foundation.
Generally, there are two types of foundation that are used for pre engineered steel buildings – the portable foundation and the permanent foundation. However, there are many variations under each category.
Because the name implies, a transportable foundation is usually employed for portable steel building applications like cabins. A transportable foundation might not be as strong as a permanent foundation but it is still sturdy enough to keep the metal structure. The steel building is assembled on top of a commercial plate that’s consequently, attached to a concrete perimeter by anchor bolts. The most crucial benefit of a portable foundation is that it allows your building to be gone to live in another location. An additional would be that the height of the building can also be retained. Additionally, creating a portable foundation is a lot simpler as well as a shorter period when compared to a permanent foundation.
Permanent foundations are for steel buildings that don’t need to be moved, like houses and industrial applications. Usually, these structures have higher loads. That’s why a permanent foundation is more suitable.
COMMON FOUNDATION TYPES
A floating slab foundation or a floating foundation is a concrete slab with a continuous grade beam. Continuous grade beams carry the vertical load from the columns. The concrete is spread directly under a column or reinforced along the bottom.
Another kind of foundation uses piers, footings, and grade beams. The foundation includes square or rectangular footings and grade beam walls. Sometimes, a driller pier is used instead of the footing. Overall, the piers and footings carry most of the vertical lots of the steel building.
Whichever foundation is used, the site for that steel building must first be surveyed and marked by a professional, before leveling and excavation can start. Surveying involves marking the precise boundaries of the plot. The surveyor makes sure that the development website is level. The land should also be physically leveled or graded. This helps to ensure that it conforms to the height and shape of the surveyor’s stakes. Following this process, excavation can begin and the construction of the first step toward the steel building can commence.
Elements of Multi Level Flyovers :-
The multi level flyovers include multi-storey carriageways generally having four levels where apart from the ground level, traffic moves at three other levels. The aforesaid flyover has been constructed on Ring Road at Naya Azadpur, in New Delhi in the road junction where Ring Road, Mall Road, G.T. Karnal Road and Road Number 51 intersect with each other. This road junction is located in Asia’s largest vegetable and fruit market where mixed traffic of all of vehicles remains in operation throughout the day and night. This flyover shall comprise following four levels ensuring signal-free traffic movement on Mall Road and Ring Road.
• Level 1 (The Underpass Level)
The underpass is going to be constructed along Mall Road and GT Karnal Road for ensuring uninterrupted movement on the said roads.
• Level 2 (The Ground Level)
This level shall comprise the making of rotary, cycle tracks, service lanes, surface-level slip roads for left-turning and signalized intersection for right-turning of the local traffic.
• Level 3 (flyover level)
This level shall comprise a 780-meter long flyover connecting Ring Road with Road Number 51. This will ensure that the movement of long-distance vehicles is not interrupted by local traffic.
• Level 4 (The Metro Rail Level)
The Metro train will run most importantly the three level, completing the picture of four-storey traffic management. The Metro line above it which is an element of the Vishwavidalaya-Jahangirpuri Metro line.
At the moment, even in big Metropolitan Cities where population figures have crossed 50 lacs, one level flyover above ground are being constructed. All flyovers have been constructed in National Capital Region of Delhi especially the flyovers constructed on Ring Road of Delhi, Noida, Ghaziabad and National Highway No. 8 Gurgaon are not solving the complete traffic problems in the absence of multi level flyovers. The long queues of local traffic Jam can invariably be seen below single level flyover constructed only recently. Therefore, Town Planner should recommend at least the construction of Multi Level Flyovers on all Major Road Junctions where population of Metropolitan Cities have exceeded the figures of 50 lacs.
Since, construction of multi level flyovers are considered a part of urban infrastructure and as urban infrastructure has been developed on self financing principles, therefore, creation of such infrastructure in each and every Metropolitan City should not be a problem to the Government.